Henri Matisse (1869-1954), French artist, painter, and sculptor, was one of the most important influencers and innovators of early 20th century modern art.
In researching Matisse online, I found so much excellent material that I could not possibly do him justice by giving you a 1000-word summary. Instead, I am providing you a curated group of links to the best of the best articles and videos I came across, as well as some public domain (in the US) images of some of his pieces.
Archival footage of Matisse at work:
And a fascinating one-hour BBC documentary, Becoming Matisse:
I recently discovered, though, that the works I most associate with Matisse, the ones with colorful leaf and petal shapes, are not actually paintings but cut-outs of painted paper.